Генри Мор (Henry More)
(1614–1687)

 

more Генри Мор (12 октября 1614 – 1 сентября 1687) – английский философ, представитель кембриджской платонической школы.

Биография

Генри Мор родился 12 октября 1614 года в городе Грантем графства Линкольншир. Он был седьмым сыном городского мэра Александра Мора и Анны Мор (в девичестве Лейси). Родители Генри были кальвинистами, но сам он «никогда не мог принять на веру это сложное учение».

Генри Мор учился в Королевской школе Грантема и в Итонском колледже. В 1631 году он поступил в Колледж Христа в Кембридже, из которого примерно в то же время ушел Джон Мильтон. В 1635 году Мор получил степень бакалавра, а в 1639 – степень магистра. После окончания колледжа философу поступило несколько приглашений, но он решил остаться в стенах alma mater. В 1654 году он отклонил предложение возглавить родной колледж. В 1675 Генри Мор наконец согласился занять должность пребендария Глостерского собора, но лишь для того, чтобы вскоре отказаться от нее в пользу своего друга Эдварда Фоулера, будущего епископа Глостерского.

Учениками Мора были многие известные люди, в том числе Энн Финч (в последствии леди Конвей), сестра Гинига Финча, будущего графа Ноттингема. Значительную часть своей жизни Мор провел в ее загородной резиденции Регли в Ворвикшире, где написал несколько книг. Религиозная восторженность леди Конвей оказала сильное влияние на взгляды Мора, хотя в конце концов эта дама примкнула к квакерам. Она была другом и оказывала поддержку не только Генри Мору и Уильяму Пену, но также Франциску Меркуриусу ван Гельмонту (1614–1699) и Валентину Гретрексу, мистикам-чудотворцам XVII века. Благодаря ей Регли превратился в центр спиритуализма, философских и религиозных поисков.

Взгляды

Мор был теологом-рационалистом. Он пытался использовать некоторые достижения медицины и философии своего времени (в том виде, в каком их развивал Рене Декарт), чтобы доказать существование духовной субстанции.

Мор отвергал картезианский дуализм на следующем основании: «Мне легче приписать материальность и протяженность душе, чем допустить, что тело может приводить и приводиться в движение нематериальной субстанцией». Его неприятие картезианского дуализма выросло не из неспособности понять, как духовная и протяженная субстанции могут взаимодействовать между собой, но из нежелания признавать реальность за каждой непротяженной сущностью вообще. Мор продолжает: «…очевидно, что если вещь вообще существует, то она должна быть протяженной». Таким образом, «дух» для Мора должен также обладать протяженностью. Эти размышления привели его к предположению о существовании «четвертого измерения», в котором и разворачивается дух, а также к оригинальному решению проблемы сознание-тело.

Влияние

Цитата из Мора стала эпиграфом к «Сверх-душе» Ральфа Уолдо Эмерсона.

Елена Блаватская, создательница теософского учения, цитировала Мора и описывала его идеи в VII главе «Разоблаченной Изиды».

Работы

Мор был плодовитым поэтом и прозаиком. Его основные философские и теологические идеи нашли отражение в работе «Божественные диалоги» (1688). Как и многие другие, Мор начинал как поэт и постепенно перешел к прозе. Его первая работа, написанная в 1640 и опубликованная в 1642 году, носила название «Psychodoia Platonica или Платоническая Песнь Души в четырех Поэмах» («Psychodoia Platonica: or, a Platonicall Song of the Soul, consisting of foure severall Poems»). В 1647 году за ней последовало издание полного собрания «Философских поэм», в которое вновь вошла уже дополненная «Песнь Души».

Считается, что Мор написал «Philosophiae Teutonicae Censura» (1670), критический труд о теософии Якоба Бёме, а также был редактором «Saducismus Triumphatus» (1681) Джозефа Гленвиля.

Мор издал полное собрание своих сочинений: «Opera theological» — в 1675 и «Opera philosophica» — в 1678 году. Между 1672 и 1675 годами он занимался переводом своих работ на латынь. В 1675 году появились «Henrici Mori Cantabrigiensis Opera Theologica», «Anglice quidem primitius scripta, mine vero per autorem Latine reddita», «Hisce novus praefixus est De Synchronismis Apocalypticis Tractatulus». В 1679 году за ними последовал большой двухтомный труд «Henrici Mori Cantabrigiensis Opera Omnia, tum quae Latine tum quae Anglice scripta sunt; nunc vero Latinitate donata instigatu et impensis generosissimi juvenis Johannis Cockshutt nobilis Angli». В 1692 году вышли «Discourses on Several Texts of Scripture» с предисловием Джона Вортингтона, а в 1694 — «Letters on Several Subjects».

Н. В. Витвицкая

 


Henry More (12 October 1614–1 September 1687) was an English philosopher of the Cambridge Platonist school.

Henry was born in Grantham, Lincolnshire on 12 October 1614.[1] He was the seventh son of Alexander More, mayor of Grantham, and Anne More (née Lacy).[1] Both his parents were Calvinists but he himself «could never swallow that hard doctrine».

He was schooled at The King's School, Grantham and at Eton College. In 1631 he entered Christ's College, Cambridge, at about the time John Milton was leaving it. He took his BA in 1635, his MA in 1639, and immediately afterwards became a fellow of his college, turning down all other positions that were offered.[2] He would not accept the mastership of his college, to which, it is understood, he would have been preferred in 1654, when Ralph Cudworth was appointed. In 1675, he finally accepted a prebend in Gloucester Cathedral, but only to resign it in favour of his friend Edward Fowler, afterwards bishop of Gloucester.

More taught many notable pupils, including Anne Finch, sister of Heneage Finch, subsequently Earl of Nottingham. She later became Lady Conway, and at her country seat at Ragley in Warwickshire, More would spend "a considerable part of his time." She and her husband both appreciated him, and amidst the woods of this retreat he wrote several of his books. The spiritual enthusiasm of Lady Conway was a considerable factor in some of More's speculations, even though she at length joined the Quakers. She became the friend not only of More and William Penn, but of Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont (1614–1699) and Valentine Greatrakes, mystical thaumaturgists of the 17th-century. Ragley became a centre of devotion and spiritualism.

More was a rationalist theologian. He attempted to use the details of 17th-century mechanical philosophy—as developed by René Descartes—to establish the existence of immaterial substance.

More (1712) rejected Cartesian dualism on the following grounds: «It would be easier for me to attribute matter and extension to the soul, than to attribute to an immaterial thing the capacity to move and be moved by the body.» His difficulties with Cartesian Dualism arose, not from an inability to understand how material and immaterial substances could interact, but from an unwillingness to accept any unextended entity as any kind of real entity. More continues «...it is plain that if a thing be at all it must be extended.» So for More 'spirit' too must be extended. This led him to the idea of a «fourth dimension» in which the spirit is extended (to which he gave the curious name of "essential spissitude")[4] and to an original solution to the mind-body problem.

A quotation from More is used as the epigraph of Ralph Waldo Emerson's "The Over-soul." Helena Blavatsky, the founder of Theosophy, quoted More and gave an exposition of his ideas in chapter VII of "Isis Unveiled"

Works. More was a prolific writer of verse and prose. The Divine Dialogues (1688) condenses his general view of philosophy and religion. Like many others he began as a poet and ended as a prose writer. His first work, published in 1642, but written two years earlier, was Psychodoia Platonica: or, a Platonicall Song of the Soul, consisting of foure severall Poems. It was followed in 1647 by his full collection of Philosophicall Poems, which includes The Song of the Soul, enlarged, and is dedicated to his dfather. A second edition was published in the same year, and it was included by A. B. Grosart in his Chertsey Worthies Library (1878).

More's prose works are:
• Observations upon Anthroposophia Theomagica and Anima Magica Abscondita, by Alazonomastix Philalethes (pseudonym, see -mastix), 1650; in answer to Thomas Vaughan, who replied in The Man-mouse taken in a Trape.
• The Second Lash of Alazonomastix, a rejoinder to Vaughan, 1651.
• An Antidote against Atheism, or an Appeal to the Naturall Faculties of the Minde of Man, whether there be not a God, 1653 : 2nd edit. corrected and enlarged, with an Appendix, 1655.
• Conjectura Cabbalistica ... or a Conjectural Essay of Interpreting the Minde of Moses, according to a Threefold Cabbala: viz. Literal, Philosophical, Mystical, or Divinely Moral, 1653; dedicated to Ralph Cudworth.
• Enthusiasmus Triumphatus, or a Discourse of the Nature, Causes, Kinds, and Cure of Enthusiasme; written by Philophilus Parrasiastes, and prefixed to Alazonomastix his Observations and Reply, 1656.
• The Immortality of the Soul, so farre forth as it is demonstrable from the Knowledge of Nature and the Light of Reason, 1659; dedicated to Viscount Conway.
• An Explanation of the Grand Mystery of Godliness; or a True and Faithful Representation of the Everlasting Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 1660.
• A Modest Enquiry into the Mystery of Iniquity, and an Apologie, 1664.
• Enchiridion Ethicum, praecipua Moralis Philosophiae Rudimenta complectens, illustrata ut plurimum Veterum Monumentis, et ad Probitatem Vitae perpetuo accommodate, 1667, 1668, 1669, 1695, 1696, and 1711.
• Divine Dialogues, containing sundry Disquisitions and Instructions concerning the Attributes of God and His Providence in the World, 1668. The most authentic edition appeared in 1713.
• An Exposition of the Seven Epistles to the Seven Churches; Together with a Brief Discourse of Idolatry, with application to the Church of Rome. The title of the latter in the volume itself is An Antidote against Idolatry, and it elicited from More in reply to attacks A brief Reply to a late Answer to Dr. Henry More his antidote against Idolatry, 1672, and An Appendix to the late Antidote against Idolatry, 1673.
• Enchiridion Metaphysicum: sive, de rebus incorporeis succincta et luculenta dissertati; pars prima, 1671, an attack on Cartesian philosophy, which he had in earlier life admired.
• Remarks upon two late ingenious Discourses [by Matthew Hale]; the one, an Essay, touching the Gravitation and non-Gravitation of Fluid Bodies; the other, touching the Torricellian Experiment, so far forth as they may concern any passages in his "Enchiridion Metaphysicum," 1676.
• Apocalypsis Apocalypseos; or the Revelation of St. John the Divine unveiled: an exposition from chapter to chapter and from verse to verse of the whole Book of the Apocalypse, 1680.
• A Plain and continued Exposition of the several Prophecies or Divine Visions of the Prophet Daniel, which have or may concern the People of God, whether Jew or Christian, 1681.
• A Brief Discourse of the Real Presence of the Body and Blood of Christ in the Celebration of the Holy Eucharist; wherein the Witty Artifices of the Bishop of Meaux [Bossuet] and of Monsieur Maimbourg are obviated, whereby they would draw in the Protestants to imbrace the doctrine of Transubstantiation, 1681

More is also believed to have written Philosophiae Teutonicae Censura, 1670, a criticism of the theosophy of Jacob Boehme; and to have edited Joseph Glanvill's Saducismus Triumphatus, 1681. He certainly contributed largely to the volume, and also wrote many of the annotations to Glanvill's Lux Orientalis, 1682. More agreed with Glanvill on belief in witchcraft and apparitions. Several letters from More to John Worthington are printed in Worthington's Diary, and some Letters Philosophical and Moral between John Norris and Henry More are added to Norris's Theory and Regulation of Love, 1688. A Collection of several Philosophical Writings of Dr. Henry More was first published in 1662 and includes his Antidote against Atheism, with the Appendix, Enthusiasmus Triumphatus, Letters to Des Cartes, &c., Immortality of the Soul, and Conjectura Cabbalistica. A fourth edition, corrected and much enlarged, was published in 1712, with notes.

More issued complete editions of his works, his Opera theologica in 1675, and his Opera philosophica in 1678. Between 1672 and 1675 he was principally engaged in translating his English works into Latin. In 1675 appeared Henrici Mori Cantabrigiensis Opera Theologica, Anglice quidem primitius scripta, mine vero per autorem Latine reddita. Hisce novus praefixus est De Synchronismis Apocalypticis Tractatulus. It was followed in 1679 by a larger work in two volumes, Henrici Mori Cantabrigiensis Opera Omnia, tum quae Latine tum quae Anglice scripta sunt; nunc vero Latinitate donata instigatu et impensis generosissimi juvenis Johannis Cockshutt nobilis Angli. John Cockshutt of the Inner Temple had left a legacy of £300 to More to have three of his principal pieces translated into Latin; and More complied with the terms of the legacy by translating into Latin many more of his English works. In 1692 were published Discourses on Several Texts of Scripture, with a preface signed "John Worthington"; and in 1694 Letters on Several Subjects, published by Edmund Elys. Abridgments of and extracts from the works of More were numerous; and in 1708 a volume was published for charitable libraries, The Theological Works of the most Pious and Learned Henry More. The work is in English, but "according to the author's Improvements in his Latin edition"

The main authorities for More's life are Richard Ward's Life (1710); the prefatio generalissima prefixed to his Opera omnia (1679); and also an account of his writings in an Apology published in 1664. His Philosophical Poems appeared (1647), with his Echief speculations and experiences". Analysis of his life and works is given in John Tulloch's Rational Theology, vol. ii. (1874); see also Johann Georg Ritter von Zimmermann, Henry More und die vierte Dimension des Raums (Vienna, 1881); Henry More: Tercentenary Studies, ed. by Sarah Hutton (Dordrecht, 1990).

 


ТЕКСТЫ

Collection of Several philosophical writings of Dr. Henry More, fellow of Christ's Colledge in Cambridge pdf-файл
as namely:
Antidote against Atheism
Appendix to the said Antidote
Enthusiasmis Tritimphatus
Letters to Des-Cartes
Immortality of the Soul
Conjectura Cabbalistica

Vita et Doctrina Christi Domini. Antverpen, 1649 pdf-файл

Account of Virtue. L., 1701 pdf-файл

Divine Dialogues. Glasgow, 1743 pdf-файл

The Complete Poems of Dr. Henry More. 1878 pdf-файл

Observations upon Anthroposophia Theomagica and Anima Magica Abscondita by Alazonomastix Philalethes, 1650 ; in answer to Thomas Vaughan, who replied in The Man-mouse taken in a Trape. The Second Lash of Alazonomastix, a rejoinder to Vaughan, 1651 на сайте Early English Books online

Никулин Д. В. Доступное, подлинное и истинное изложение и последовательное изъяснение природы духа. Перевод первых двух глав трактата Г. Мора «Enheiridion Metaphysicum» // Историко-философский ежегодник 92. М., 1994. pdf-файл

ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ

Авксентьевская М. В. Кембриджский платонизм: между магией и наукой// Вестник ЛГУ им. А. С. Пушкина. № 4 (17). СПб., 2008. С. 16–24 pdf-файл

Артемьева О. В. Английский этический интеллектуализм XVIII–XIX вв. M., 2011 pdf-файл

Ковалева И. В., Семенов A. А. Общая характеристика философии Генри Мора в контексте основных научных и теологических проблем XVII в.// AKAΔHMEIA Материалы и исследования по истории платонизма. Вып. 5. СПб., 2003. C. 345–364 pdf-файл

Никулин Д. В. Связь души и тела и проблема протяжения в метафизике Генри Мора // Историко-философский ежегодник 92. М., 1994. С. 282–285. pdf-файл

Crocker R. Henry More, 1614-1687. A Biography of The Cambridge Platonist. 2003 pdf-файл

Greene R. A. Henry More and Robert Boyle on the Spirit of Nature// Journal of the History of Ideas. Vol. 23. No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1962). P. 451-474. pdf-файл

Henry J. A Cambridge Platonist's Materialism: Henry More and the Concept of Soul// Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. Vol. 49 (1986). P. 172-195 pdf-файл

Reid J. W. The Evolution of Henry More’s Theory of Divine Absolute Space// Journal of the History of Philosophy. Vol. 45.№ 1. January 2007. P. 79–102 pdf-файл

Straudenbaur C. A. Galileo, Ficino, and Henry More's Psychathanasia// Journal of the History of Ideas. Vol. 29. No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1968). P. 565-578 pdf-файл

Tulloch J. Henry More — christian theosophy and mysticism// Tulloch J. Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England in the Seventeenth Century. Vol. II: The Cambridge Platonists. PP. 303–409 pdf-файл

Ward R The Life of Learned and Pious Dr. Henry More. L., 1710 pdf-файл

Ward R. The life of Henry More/ Ed. by S. Hutton, C. Courtney, M Courtney, R. Crocker, A. R. Hall. 2000 pdf-файл

Webster C. Henry More and Descartes: Some New Sources// The British Journal for the History of Science. Vol. 4. Issue 04. December, 1969. P. 359–377 pdf-файл


Ссылки

Henry J. Henry More статья на сайте Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The two last dialogues treating of the kingdome of God within us and without us, and of his special providence through Christ over his church from the beginning to the end of all things : whereunto is annexed a brief discourse of the true grounds of the certainty of faith in points of religion, together with some few plain songs of divine hymns on the chief holy-days of the year (L., 1668). На сайте Early English Books Online

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